Syllabus (http://rglsun1.geol.vt.edu/gif/g4114.html --this document)

SAGE -- Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience

Department of Geological Sciences

Virginia Polytechnic Institute
and State University

Quarter equivalent: GEOL 4110 Groundwater
Hydrology

M W F 8:00 AM - 8:50 AM Derring Hall Room 1076

Instructor: John K.
Costain

Professor Emeritus of Geophysics

1050 Derring Hall e-mail:
costain@vt.edu

(540) 231-8912

Office hours: MWF 9-11:00 A.M., or by appointment, or at any mutually convenient time. Call me at 231-8912, or get in touch by e-mail (best way)

*Required Textbook**:* Groundwater, by R. A. Freeze and
J. A. Cherry, Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1979. The course will concentrate on Chapter
2 (Physical Properties and Principles), Chapter 4 (Groundwater Geology),
Chapter 5 (Flow nets - Section 5.1 -homogeneous isotropic systems only),
Chapter 6 (Groundwater and the Hydrologic Cycle), Chapter 8 (Groundwater
Resource Evaluation), and Chapter 11 (Groundwater and Geologic Processes).

** Computer Exercises Lab Manual**. Download exercises from
Electronic Reserve. See link above.

** Recommended reading**: Applied Groundwater Modeling, by M.P.
Anderson and W.W. Woessner, 1992, Academic Press, Inc., 379 pp. This book
contains many practical design hints and guides to the modeling of groundwater
problems, including excellent discussions of several widely used computer
codes. If you want to become a serious groundwater modeler, you should have
this in your library.

In this course, emphasis is placed on the physical principles of groundwater flow, and on the importance of the properties of water in groundwater flow at the present time as well as in the geologic past. For example, the temperature dependence of the viscosity of water, the compressibility of water, and the solubility of quartz in water as a function of temperature and pressure are examples of physical properties that will be discussed within the framework of geological applications.

** For the homework problems,
we will use widely-used "canned" computer programs to examine groundwater flow,
particle tracking, and full solute transport.**

models two-dimensional steady-state saturated flow in a rectangular, inhomogeneous, anisotropic medium, and outputs both flow lines and equipotential lines. We will start off with this program because it is excellent tutorial software for visualizing recharge and discharge areas, groundwater divides, and simple geologic models that can be used to illustrate the tangent law as well as groundwater flow rates. We will also use software for modeling groundwater flow, particle tracking, and solute transport, including (McDonald and Harbaugh). Much of the input-output data manipulation associated with these "processing step" programs is made less tedious by "pre-processing" and "post-processing" software that is used to set up input data files and contour the results, thus allowing us to spend more time interpreting the data. We will use and pre- and post-processing software. The large number of groundwater studies has prompted the generation of several computer applications intended for investigation of small hydrocarbon spills, such as those associated with underground storage tanks. is one such application and will be used in this course.

"Interpreting a pumping test is not a matter of feeding a set of field data into a computer, tapping a few keys, and expecting the truth to appear. The only computer codes with merit are those that take over the tedious work of plotting the field data and the type curves, and display them on the screen."<1>: Pump tests and other aquifer test procedures will be examined using Geraghty and Miller's and , which is interactive menu-driven software for analyzing confined, semi-confined, and unconfined aquifers, and for performing recovery, slug, and fractured aquifer tests.

** Prerequisites**: Elementary physics and calculus.
Differential calculus is more important in this course than integral calculus,
but you should have had both. You don't need a separate course in differential
equations. If you have not had elementary physics (where the concepts of force,
pressure, velocity, etc. were introduced) or calculus, it is not recommended
that you take this course. We will go through in detail several elementary
derivations, one of which will be the fundamental differential equation for
transient groundwater flow (the "diffusion equation").

All of the above examinations must be taken; however, at the option of
the student, and if all of the three exams have been taken, the lowest grade of
the above three examinations can be replaced by doing a computer modeling
exercise made up by the students and using software on the PC. This exercise is
referred to as the**"optional problem"**, and will be handed out near the
end of the Semester. A successful completion of the exercise will be considered
to be a grade of 100 %. All students who elect this option must do the same
exercise. This exercise must be handed in no later than 5:00 P.M. on the last
day of class. The optional problem will be handed out about two weeks before
the end of classes.

(Problems handed in late are not accepted for credit.)

The problems are downloaded by you from
**http://reserve.lib.vt.edu/instructors/costain/**. Problems are to be
handed in before 5:00 P.M. on the day (each Friday) they are due. Starting with
the first problem, there will be one computer problem due each Friday unless
that Friday is one for which classes are officially canceled. Problems must be
turned in at my office, Room 1050 Derring Hall,** in the input box provided on
the desk in my outer office (not on the wall outside my office)**. Please do
not put them in my mailbox on the fourth floor or anywhere else except in the
input box in Room 1050. Do not turn them in to me when you come to class. They
must be turned in on time, and in Room 1050.

Exams missed without a valid excuse cannot be made up.

**Examination Schedule**

Exam 1 Wednesday February 4, 1998

Exam 2 Wednesday March 4, 1998

Exam 3 Wednesday April 8, 1998

**Note:** The material covered on the above exams is cumulative;
i.e., Exam 2 might contain some of the same material as Exam 1. But the
emphasis (80-90%) on Exam 2 will be on the material covered between Exam 1 and
Exam 2, etc.

The course content pretty much follows Freeze and Cherry, as noted below, with some additional handouts.

2.1 Darcy's Law

2.2 Hydraulic Head and Fluid Potential

- Hubbert's Analysis of the Fluid Potential
- Dimensions and Units
- Piezometers and Piezometer Nests

2.3 Hydraulic Conductivity and Permeability

2.4 Heterogeneity and Anisotropy of Hydraulic Conductivity

- Homogeneity and Heterogeneity
- Isotropy and Anisotropy
- Darcy's Law in Three Dimensions
- Hydraulic Conductivity Ellipsoid

2.5 Porosity and Void Ratio

2.6 Unsaturated Flow and the Water Table

- Water Table
- Perched and Inverted Water Tables

2.7 Aquifers and Aquitards

- Aquifers, Aquitards, and Aquicludes
- Confined and Unconfined Aquifers
- Potentiometric Surface
- If the casing in the aquitard leaks, which aquifer contaminates and which is contaminated?

2.8 Steady-State Flow and Transient Flow

2.9 Compressibility and Effective Stress

- Compressibility of Water
- Effective Stress
- Compressibility of a Porous Medium
- Aquifer Compressibility

2.10 Transmissivity and Storativity

- Specific Storage
- Transmissivity and Storativity of a Confined Aquifer
- Transmissivity and Specific Yield in Unconfined Aquifers

2.11 Equations of Groundwater Flow

- Steady-State Saturated Flow
- Transient Saturated Flow and derivation of the diffusion equation.
- Boundary-Value Problems

2.12 Limitations of the Darcian Approach

- Darcian Continuum and Representative Elementary Volume
- Specific Discharge, Macroscopic Velocity, and Microscopic Velocity
- Upper and Lower Limits of Darcy's Law
- Flow in Fractured Rocks

2.13 Hydrodynamic Dispersion

Selected topics from:

- 3.1 Groundwater and its Chemical Constituents
- Major ions in groundwater

- 3.4 Effects of Concentration Gradients
- Fick's First Law
- Fick's Second Law
- Fick's law, Darcy's law, and the equations of continuity. What they all have in common.

- 3.5 Mineral Dissolution and Solubility

3.8 Environmental Isotopes

- Carbon-14
- Tritium

4.1 Lithology, Stratigraphy, and Structure

4.2 Fluvial Deposits

4.3 Aeolian Deposits

4.4 Glacial Deposits

4.5 Sedimentary Rocks

- Sandstone
- Carbonate Rock
- Coal
- Shale

4.6 Igneous and Metamorphic Rocks

4.7 Permafrost

- Supplementary material handed out in class.
- Plateau and Valley and Ridge Provinces
- Hydrologic characteristics
- Sinkholes
- Hot springs of Virginia and their origin

- Blue Ridge and Piedmont Provinces
- Hydrologic characteristics
- Chemical characteristics of crystalline rocks
- Relation between well yield and depth
- Flow in fractured rocks. The cubic law.

- Coastal Plain Province
- Hydrologic characteristics
- Groundwater withdrawals

- Plateau and Valley and Ridge Provinces

5.1 Flow Nets by Graphical Construction

- Homogeneous, Isotropic Systems
- Heterogeneous Systems and the Tangent Law

5.3 Flow Nets by Numerical Simulation

6.1 Steady-State Regional Groundwater Flow

- Recharge Areas, Discharge Areas, and Groundwater Divides
- Effect of Topography on Regional Flow Systems
- Effect of Geology on Regional Flow Systems
- Flowing Artesian Wells

6.3 Baseflow Recession and Bank Storage

6.8 Fluctuations in Groundwater Levels

- Atmospheric Pressure Effects
- External Loads

** **(Most of the water chemistry will be incorporated into handouts
related to the hydrogeological provinces of Virginia. See Chapter 4a, above.)

7.1 Hydrochemical Sequences and Facies

- Chemistry of Precipitation
- Carbon Dioxide in the Soil Zone

7.3 Groundwater in Carbonate Terrain

7.4 Groundwater in Crystalline Rocks

8.1 Development of Groundwater Resources

- Well yield, Aquifer Yield, and Basin Yield

8.2 Exploration for Aquifers (One lecture)

- Surface Geophysical Methods
- Reflection seismic
- Refraction seismic
- Electrical resistivity
- Magnetics
- Gravity
- Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR)

8.3 The Response of Ideal Aquifers to Pumping

(Most of the following are done as computer homework problems.)

- Radial Flow to a Well
- The Theis Solution
- Leaky Aquifers
- Unconfined Aquifers
- Bounded Aquifers

The Real World

8.6 Measurement of Parameters: Pumping Tests

- Semilog Plots
- Advantages and Disadvantages of Pumping Tests

8.8 Prediction of Aquifer Yield by Numerical Simulation (1 lecture)

- Finite Difference Methods

An illustration of the finite-difference numerical model MODFLOW is shown below. Although this figure appears here in the course outline, we will introduce the MODFLOW software in the first few weeks of the course, and use it in several problems.

- Finite-Element Methods
- Brief overview
- Why often more geologically appropriate

8.10 Basin Yield (1 lecture)

- Safe Yield and Optimal Yield of a Groundwater Basin

8.12 Land Subsidence (1 lecture)

- Mechanism of Land Subsidence

8.13 Seawater Intrusion (1 lecture)

- Ghyben-Herzberg Relation

10.1 Pore pressures, Landslides, and Slope Stability (1 lecture)

- Mohr-Coulomb Failure Theory
- Limit Equilibrium Methods of Slope Stability Analysis

**Problem 1** - GERBIL (and introduction to computing
facilities).

**Problem 2.** Modeling Regional Groundwater Flow: Cross section view
using FLOWNET

**Problem 3:** MODFLOW. Modeling Regional Groundwater Flow -- Map
Views

**Problem 4** - The Different Kinds of Velocity in Groundwater Flow
Problems: -- Changes in h in time and space.

**Problem 5.** - A Groundwater Remediation Problem

**Problem 6.** - MODFLOW and FLOWNET and the effect of model boundary
conditions on model results.

**Problem 7.** Effect of Hydrogeologic Boundaries and Principle of
Superposition

**Problem 8** - Effect of Hydrogeologic Boundaries (Bounded Aquifers)
and the Principle of Superposition -- Two Barrier Boundaries (buried stream
channel)

**Problem 9** - Analysis of pump test data from confined,
leaky-confined, and unconfined aquifers: determination of transmissivity,
storativity, specific yield and hydraulic conductivity

**Problem 10**—Particle tracking and well design to contain a
hydrocarbon spill (LNAPL)

**Problem 11**-Data Management and Decision Support for Hydrocarbon
Spills

**Problem 12**— Will there be enough water to support the
proposed housing development?

Problems must be turned in each Friday before 5:00 PM in Professor
Costain's outer office, Room 1050 Derring Hall, in the input box labeled**
Homework Problems Geology 4114** provided on the desk in the outer office. Do
not put them in the mailbox on the fourth floor or anywhere else except in the
input box in Room 1050. Do not turn them in when you come to class. They must
be turned in on time, before 5:00 PM each Friday, and in Room 1050.

Graded homework problems will be returned to you as soon as possible,
hopefully the following week. I will try to keep your current Semester grade up
to date on a weekly basis; however, this is a class that requires time
management on your part as well as mine. Late homework problems are not
accepted for credit. Neither are claims that a homework problem was turned in
but that you didn't get it back, so please pick up *only* your own
homework, not your friend's as well! Thanks. Of course, you may turn in
problems early; however, they will not be returned until a week after the due
date.

There are Pentium PCs in Room 1044 on the first floor (just down the hall from my office) in Derring Hall. This computer lab is open from 9:00 AM to 5:00 PM, Monday through Friday; and we are working on a schedule to keep it open from 5:00 to 7:00 P.M. There will be a schedule posted on the door. The lab will generally not be available on weekends. You cannot copy the programs and do them at home on your own PC. The programs are copyrighted; they are not academic (demo) versions but are full-blown commercially available versions of the software. Last Semester, the best time (least congestion) to do the problems was on a Monday or Tuesday. The worst time is on a Friday. Plan ahead!

<1> Kruseman and de Ritter, Analysis and Evaluation of Pumping Test Data, Second Edition, International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement, P.O. Box 45, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands, 1990.