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 Hydroseismicity Home Page

Welcome to John Costain's Hydroseismicity Home Page. Here you will learn about the origin of intraplate earthquakes, i.e., the kind of earthquakes that occur within a tectonic plate as opposed to those that occur at plate boundaries like the San Andreas fault. There are only two kinds of naturally-occurring earthquakes: 1) those interplate earthquakes associated with the dynamics of plate tectonics, and 2) those intraplate earthquakes associated with the dynamics of the hydrologic cycle, i.e., the weather. This second type is called hydroseismicity. Intraplate earthquakes in the United States of America include those in the New Madrid, Missouri, Seismic Zone, the Eastern Tennessee Seismic Zone, the Central Virginia Seismic zone, the Charleston, SC, area, and all those in the northeastern part of the United States.

Published examples of hydroseismicity, a hypothesis that attributes most intraplate and near-intraplate earthquakes to the dynamics of the hydrologic cycle, which includes hurricanes and typhoons, can be found here where results from 30 worldwide studies of earthquake-rainfall correlations published during the past 22 years are referenced. These investigations were conducted in both intraplate and plate marginal environments on five continents.

Collectively, world-wide reports now provide strong support for the hydroseismicity hypothesis as a viable explanation via pore-fluid-pressure diffusion from the surface of the Earth for the occurrence of intraplate earthquakes, regardless of the host tectonic regime. Meteorological forcing (rainfall) on the atmosphere-water-table interface results in diffusion of pore-fluid pressure to hypocentral depths, even in some unstable tectonic regions. Fluctuations in the elevation of the water table accompanied by changes in river flow and baseflow transmit pore-fluid-pressure transients to hypocentral depths where they trigger earthquakes in a crust already stressed close to failure. Seismicity in the Central Virginia Seismic Zone as well as the New Madrid Seismic Zone is coincident with a relatively large and abrupt supply of water available to the crust (Costain, 2008).

Earthquakes triggered by the dynamics of the hydrologic cycle

The 5.7 magnitude earthquake in Viginia of August 23, 2011

The Central Virginia Seismic Zone is bisected by the James River. That's why the zone is there. Ditto for the New Madrid Seismic Zone, which is bisected by the Mississippi River. Except for the fact that ancient sutures or rifted crust might have left a crust more fractured locally, most intraplate earthquakes have little to do with the mapped surface geology. It is fairly well accepted that fluid pressures are hydrostatic in tectonic plate interiors. The Kola Penninsula deep hole is a nice example, but there's so much in the literature now supporting this. Hydrostatic pressures down to 15-18 km means that the fractures are interconnected to those depths. So, if for some reason the water table impulsively goes up (from a hurricane or typhoon, say) then a pulse of pore-fluid overpressure (above hydrostatic), a "Biot slow wave", is transmitted downward in this fractured crust to hypocentral depths where an earthquake might be triggered. The diffuse nature of the geographic distribution of epicenters supports the hypothesis that intraplate earthquakes are not triggered along mapped (named) faults. Said another way, if the James River were not there then there would be no Central Virginia Seismic Zone, irregardless of its proximity to mapped ancient sutures.

Deep fracture permeability. The Hydroseismicity hypothesis is predicated upon the existence of connected deep fracture permeability --from the surface to hypocentral depths. Indeed, the fluid pressure at hypocentral depths is assumed to be hydrostatic, not lithostatic, a condition long proposed by many geophysicists and petrologists. It is this same connected, deep fracture permeability that cradles the groundwater fluids that are of interest as a renewable energy resource. Heat contained within the Earth that can be recovered and put to useful work is called geothermal energy. The heat energy is contained in normal occurrences of subsurface groundwater, which is transported to the surface of the earth by pumping. Low- to moderate-temperature (20°C to 150°C [68°F to 302°F]) geothermal resources in the United States are widespread and are used to provide direct heat for homes and industry. Throughout the country, the stable temperature of subsurface groundwater can be used by geothermal heat pumps to both heat and cool buildings (geothermal energy). The low- to moderate-temperature geothermal resources constitute an important renewable non-electric power energy resource that is just beginning to be utilized in the eastern United States to heat and cool buildings. As these space-heating applications grow in popularity to include entire residential and industrial complexes instead of just single residential dwellings or buildings, we will need to know more about the deeper (to many kilometers), and therefore hotter, fractured rocks that make up the groundwater plumbing system that cradles the geothermal fluids. The higher the water temperature, the more efficient will be the geothermal resource. Although the groundwater temperatures in the eastern United States are relatively low, it is well known from a thermodynamic standpoint that a lot of warm water at a lower temperature is considerably better from the standpoint of geothermal resource potential than a little water of considerably higher temperature. Thus, the nature and quantity of the deeper and therefore warmer normal groundwater resources needs to be explored and better defined not only to evaluate groundwater as a renewable energy resource, but also to examine further the implications of deep fracture permeability with regard to the origin of intraplate earthquakes.

1985 First abstract about Hydroseismicity at a national meeting (GSA)
1987 First published paper on Hydroseismicity (21 mb), Seismological Research Letters, v. 58, No. 3, p. 41-64, Costain, Bollinger and Speer
1987 Failure of Asperities by Hydraulically Induced Fatigue: A Model for the Generation of Intraplate Seismicity, Needham, D.L., M.S. Thesis in Geophysics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA
1987 Fault initiation by fluid-enhanced subcritical crack growth: A model for intraplate seismicity in the central Virginia seismic zone, Needham, D.L., and Costain, J.K., 1987, EOS (Transactions of the American Geophysical Union), v. 68, p. 355.
1988 Forum
1988 Long-term cyclicities in earthquake energy release and major river flow volumes in Virginia and Missouri seismic zones, Bollinger, G.A. and Costain, J.K., 1988, Seismological Research Letters, V. 59, p. 279-283.
1989 Temporal and Spatial Correlations between Seismicity and Streamflow Volume in the Central Virginia Seismic Zone, Setterquist, S.A., M.S. Thesis in Geophysics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA
1991 Correlations between streamflow and intraplate seismicity in the central Virginia, U.S.A., seismic zone: evidence for possible climatic controls, Tectonophysics, v. 186, 193-214, Costain and Bollinger
1995 Common cyclicities in the seismicity and water level fluctuations at the Charlevoix seismic zone on the St. Lawrence River, Quebec, Canada, Journal of Geodynamics, v. 19, No. 2, 117-139, Tsoflias, Bollinger and Costain
1996 Climatic changes, streamflow, and long-term forecasting of intraplate seismicity, J. Geodynamics, v. 22, 97-118, Costain and Bollinger
2005 Eastern USA Seismicity and Self-Organized criticality: Further Support for Hydroseismicity
2008 Intraplate Seismicity, Hydroseismicity, and Predictions in Hindsight, Costain, Seismological Research Letters, 2008; 79: 578-589
2010 Review: Research Results in Hydroseismicity from 1987 to 2009, Costain and Bollinger, Bull. Seis. Soc. Amer. 2010; 100: 1841-1858
2010 A New Global Classification of Earthquakes, Costain and Bollinger, American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2010, abstract #S21C-2061
2011 The Hydrologic Cycle and Earthquakes
2012 Finite-element simulation of an intraplate earthquake setting -- Implications for the Virginia earthquake of August 23, 2011
2012 Baseflow as the trigger of intraplate earthquakes, John Costain, American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2012, abstract #S51E-2451
2013 Why we have earthquakes in Virginia -- Talk by John Costain at the 2013 Annual Virginia Geological Symposium, Charlottesville, VA
2013 Why we have earthquakes in the Eastern United States-- Poster by John Costain for the 2013 Annual COMSOL MultiPhysics Conference in Boston, Massachusetts, Thursday, October 10, 2013.
2014 The hydrologic cycle as the trigger of intraplate earthquakes in a quartz-rich crust: A 2-step model for intraplate earthquakes, Presentation by J.K. Costain, Geological Society of America Southeastern Section, Blacksburg, VA, April 11, 2014
2014 The hydrologic cycle and groundwater recharge as the trgger of intraplate earthquakes in a quartz-rich crust - A 2-step model for intraplate earthquakes, Presentation by J.K. Costain, Annual Virginia Geological Symposium, Thursday, April 17, 2014

 

 

Google "Hydroseismicity" (with quotes) for more references or "Hidrosismicidad" for research underway in Spain.

The following discussion is from the paper Climatic changes, streamflow, and long-term forecasting of intraplate seismicity by J.K. Costain and G.A. Bollinger, 1996, Journal of Geodynamics, Volume 22, No. 1/2, September/October, 97-117.

Regions of intraplate seismicity in the eastern United States are spatially isolated areas of persistent, diffuse earthquake activity. There is no widely accepted explanation for the origin of these earthquakes. We have suggested that climate plays a key roll in triggering such intraplate seismicity. Long-term increases and decreases in rainfall cause periodic regional and temporal variations in the elevation of the water table.

Groundwater flow is driven by changes in hydraulic head, h. The PowerPoint file accessible by the link to h (this is a large PowerPoint file -- 42.2 mb!) explains what hydraulic head h is. This is a large PowerPoint file that contains the slides I used for the first few lectures in my Groundwater Hydrology course before I retired in 1996. If you have a fast (10 Mbps) internet connection then the download time is not bad (65 sec). Once you have opened or saved the pdf file you can view the slides by using the "Page Up" and "Page Down" keys.

Continuing, at some depth z in the crust changes in h are directly proportional to changes in fluid pressure p, so you have to understand what h is. At depth z in the crust small changes in the elevation of the water table result in small (very small) changes in fluid pressure p at that depth z in the crust. There, we can say that dp is proportional to dh. In a fractured, hydraulically permeable crust, the depth of penetration of this "pore pressure diffusion" of h (or if you like, of p ) can be as deep as the brittle-ductile transition (15-18 km). Seismologists use the symbol z for depth. Groundwater hydrologists refer to the distance from the water table to the same point z as y and refer to this distance as the hydrostatic pressure head. We will use the symbol y because in our model we are talking about changes dp in hydrostatic fluid pressure. The Hydroseismicity model is shown in the following figure.

"Trickle Down" Theory of Eastern Quakes from Science News, April 5, 1986.

What happens at depth y if the elevation of the water table is increased by one foot? Answer: the fluid pressure increases by a very small amount at the depth, y. When the elevation of the water table decreases by one foot, the fluid pressure at a depth y decreaes very slightly. But the increases and decreases in fluid pressure do not happen instantaneously. It takes time to propagate any change in fluid pressure to a depth y. If we assume a flat water table, the fluid pressure after a time, t, can be calculated by using the formula shown in the figure below.

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Downward-continued flow


In a seismogenic crust, stress corrosion and fatigue of rock asperities might be more important than purely mechanical effects due to small changes in hydrostatic fluid pressure; however, because any chemical effects are quasi-static, the temporal characteristics of the triggering process might ultimately be determined by the mechanical process, resulting in a "hydraulically induced" seismicity trigger that acts somewhere along paths of pore pressure diffusion. We called this model of intraplate earthquake generation "hydroseismicity". Because streamflow is related to the regional and temporal morphology of the water table, we searched for and report here several attempts to find links between climatic changes, streamflow, and intraplate seismicity. Our results fall broadly into four categories: 1) temporal correlations of streamflow with the earthquake strain factor, 2) spectral analyses of flow and seismicity and the identification of common spectral peaks, 3) numerical modeling to estimate fluctuations in pore pressure at hypocentral depths, and 4) climatic driving mechanisms (e.g., sunspot cycles) that might substantiate a climate-earthquake link. We observe a statistically significant peak in the Fourier spectrum of surface streamflow for the seismic zones bisected by the Mississippi River, IL, and James River, VA, in the period range of 11-13 years that might be associated with sunspot activity. In addition, there is positive correlation between periods of above average values of the standard deviation of streamflow time series and periods of seismicity in the central Virginia seismic zone. Many aspects of the weather appear to be modulated by a 20-year cycle. We observe a similar periodicity (18-20 years) in seismicity in the central Virginia seismic zone. See following figure.

A good agreement is observed when a streamflow time series is superimposed on the record of the earthquake strain factor if a value of 50 km2/year is assumed for crustal hydraulic diffusivity. See following figure.

(Above). Superposition of central Virginia seismic zone earthquake magnitude (red) on the standard deviation of the James River convolution (blue). Before convolution, James River flow was binned to obtain an average value of streamflow every 16 days; i.e., the sample interval was changed from one to 16 days. Streamflow was then downward-continued to a depth of 8 km using a hydraulic diffusivity of 50 km2/year. The standard deviation was computed at every sample interval for the portion of the time series within a moving window of width 8 years centered on the year. Higher standard deviations imply greater fluctuations in fluid pressures at hypocentral depths and therefore, according to the hydroseismicity model, a greater potential for triggering earthquakes in a crust already stressed close to failure. In general, the periods of seismicity coincide with the periods of higher values of the standard deviation of the convolution, with only two exceptions (the earthquakes at 1942.77 and 1966.42). Less agreement might be expected near the start of the convolution (1925-1930) because the hydraulic impulse response is operating on a less complete streamflow data set (there are no flow data for this stream-gaging station before 1924). Figure from Costain and Bollinger (1996, Journal of Geodynamics).

Digression from the overview. New results confirming old! The Gutenberg-Richter relation Log N=a-bm describes the number N of earthquakes per unit of time with a magnitude greater than or equal to m. This relation is equivalent to a fractal distribution where the fractal (Hausdorff-Besicovitch) dimension H is H=2b. The question naturally arises that if there is a causal relation between streamflow and earthquakes then should the fractal dimension of streamflow (H) bear some relation to the quantity b? Would H=2b for the streamflow and earthquakes? In order to investigate this possibility we used the diffusion equation to "downward continue" the streamflow time series to hypocentral depths. We (Costain and Bollinger, 1996) assumed a crustal hydraulic diffusivity (D) of 50 km2/year. This value was deduced from two approaches:

1) The fractal distribution of downward-continued streamflow was seen to be equal to twice the b-value (H=2b) for streamflow periods > 1 year and only for a limited range of crustal diffusivity from D=25 km2/year to D=75 km2/year (Costain and Bollinger, 1996, Figure 8, Journal of Geodynamics). So we chose an average value of D= 50 km2/year for the downward continuation. Of course, the fact that two time series have the same fractal dimension does not prove that one time series is influenced by the other. But this choice for the value of D was strengthened by the next approach.

2) For D = 50 km2/year the downward continued streamflow just coincides with the onset of seismicity (Figure 5, Costain and Bollinger, 1996). Use of higher or lower values of D in the numerical modeling resulted in the streamflow being either too early or too late with respect to the onset of seismicity.

But here's the new data. Our value of D = 50 km2/year is equal to 1.6 meters2/second. Recent (Rothert, Shapiro, Buske, and Bohnhoff, 2003) values of D obtained for crustal diffusivity at hypocentral depths at the German Continental Deep Drilling Site (KTB) were found to be in the range 0.3 – 2 m2/sec, so that our value of 1.6 m2/second appears to have been experimentally justified (at least at the KTB site) from a completely different direction (actual measurements of D). We feel that this provides further support for the hydroseismicity hypothesis. Rothert (2004, Chapter 4) says

"Our results of hydraulic diffusivity estimates correlate very well with results obtained by Costain and Bollinger [1996]. For example, from quite a different approach Costain and Bollinger [1996] estimated a value of 1.6 m2 /s for the earths crustal diffusivity, in excellent agreement with our results at the KTB site. This agreement is remarkable because of the more indirect approach they used."

Back to the overview. In the central Virginia seismic zone, it is found that the number of earthquakes versus depth is directly proportional to the (small) pressure fluctuations at the depth, . In addition, the fractal dimension determined from downward-continued streamflow is approximately the same as the fractal dimension of intraplate seismicity. Furthermore, using the Gutenberg-Richter relation and assuming that the earthquake data sets in the New Madrid and central Virginia seismic zones are complete for all magnitudes m > 2, the ratio of the number of earthquakes occurring per year in the New Madrid zone to the central Virginia zone is about 40. The ratio of the standard deviations of downward-continued Mississippi River (New Madrid Seismic Zone) streamflow (at Thebes, IL) to the James River (Central Virginia Seismic Zone) streamflow is also about 40. One interpretation of this common ratio is that the number of intraplate earthquakes generated in a seismogenic crust is directly proportional to the standard deviation of vertical variations in the elevation of the water table. If the hydroseismicity hypothesis is correct, then long-term variations in streamflow can be used to forecast long-term maximum and minimum variations in intraplate seismic activity.

 

Other figures:


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Was the 5.7 magnitude quake in Kilauea caused by rainfall?

Seismicity induced by seasonal groundwater recharge at Mt. Hood, Oregon


EASTERN USA SEISMICITY AND SELF-ORGANIZED CRITICALITY: Further support for Hydroseismicity, Abstract of paper presented at 2005 Annual Meeting of Geological Society of America



Comments by Others on the Hydroseismicity Hypothesis

Ervin, C. P., and El-Hussain, Issa,. "Hydroseismicity; a viable trigger mechanism in the New Madrid seismic zone?." Dec. 1988, Seismological Research Letters ; Vol. 59, No. 4, p. 285-288.

Major, J.J., and Iverson, R.M., 1988, Hydroseismicity -- a hypothesis for the role of water in the generation of intraplate seismicity: comment: -- IN: Geology, v. 16, p. 562-564

Costain, J.K., Bollinger, G.A., and Speer, J.A., 1988, REPLY to COMMENT from J.J. Major and R.M. Iverson on Hydroseismicity - A hypothesis for the role of water in the generation of intraplate seismicity, Geology, p. 563-564.

Hydroseismicity - New evidence, Rodkin, M.V., J.Geodynamics, 1992, Vol. 15, N 3-4, pp. 247-260.

Periodic Seismicity Near Mt. Ogden on the Alaska-British Columbia Border: A Case for Hydrologically-Triggered Earthquakes?
Abstract here.


Other Publications Relevant to Hydroseismicity

Brodsky, E.E., E. Roeloffs, D. Woodcock, I. Gall and M. Manga, A mechanism for sustained groundwater pressure changes induces by distant earthquakes, J. Geophysical Res., 108(B8), 2390, DOI 10.1029/2002JB002321, 2003.

Saar, M. O. and Manga, M., 2004, Depth dependence of permeability in the Oregon Cascades inferred from hydrogeologic, thermal, seismic, and magmatic modeling constraints, Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 109, BO4204.

Parotidis, M., E. Rothert, and S. A. Shapiro, 2003, Pore-pressure diffusion: A possible triggering mechanism for the earthquake swarms 2000 in Vogtland/NW-Bohemia, central Europe, Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 30, No. 20, 2075.

Esposito, E., Pece, R., Porfiso, S., and G. Tranfaglia, 2001, Hydrological anomalies connected to earthquakes in southern Apennines (Italy), Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, v.1, 137-144.
PDF file

 

McClellan, Patrick H., 1984, Earthquake seasonality before the 1906 San Francisco earthquakie, Nature, v. 307, 153-156.

 

Feldman, L., and Shapira, A., 1995, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Science & Geomechanics Abstracts, v. 32, p. 205A.

Using macroseismic observations in Israel following distant-earthquakes and by using the empirical attenuation function obtained, an attempt is made to identify areas within Israel with unusual response. The results indicate a poor correlation between the intensity response of a site and its geological and geotechnical properties.

 

Muço, Betim, 1995, The seasonality of Albanian earthquakes and crosscorrelation with rainfall, Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, v.88, pp. 285-291.

Abstract. The earthquake seasonality of Albania is observed for the period 1901-1990. Of the included 211 earthquakes with magnitude >=4.5, 70% occurred in the year's period November-April. One-third of all earthquakes occur in November and December. The Schuster test is employed to asses the significance of the apparent earthquake seasonality. For five zones of the country, an attempt is made to cross-correlate rainfall and seismic activity. It is found that some zones show a better cross-correlation coefficient than others. Detailed observation has been carried out for all the "felt" earthquakes in Albania with inland epicenters for the period 1969-1990. Some of them followed heavy precipitation. A suggestion that changing underground waters can act as a valve allowing accumulated seismic ebergy to be released earlier than without groundwater recharge is proposed for the case of Albania.

 

Muço, Betim, 1999, Statistical investigation on possible seasonality of seismic activity and rainfall-induced earthquakes in Balkan area, Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, v. 114, pp. 119-127.

Abstract. Although the exact way the underground water variations are connected with earthquake mechanism is not fully understood and it is generally accepted that changes in the tectonic stresses are the main cause of the seismic activity of an area, the evidence for the role groundwater is playing in triggering of earthquakes is increasing more and more. For many scholars, the influence of underground water in tectonic processes is a line to be followed for explaining the puzzle of intracontinental seismicity. Considering the rainfall as the main source feeding the surface stream flows and, in turn, the underground water, in this approach a preliminary statistical investigation is performed and some results are obtained regarding the seasonality of seismic activity and the intercorrelation between rainfall and earthquakes in the Balkan area. Employing rainfall as well as seismological data, our study points out that there are zones in this peninsula where unusual rainfall could influence the natural trend of seismic activity.

Lee, M.-K., and Wolf, L.W., 1998, Analysis of fluid pressure propagation in heterogeneous rocks: Implications for hydrologically-induced earthquakes: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 25, p. 2329-2332.

Rothert, Elmar, 2004, Fluid induced microseismicity: Data modeling and inversion for hydraulic properties of rocks, Ph.D. Dissertation, Freien Universit¨at Berlin, 129 pages.

Rothert, E, ., Shapiro, S.A., Buske, S., and Bohnhoff, M., 2003, Mutual relationship between microseismicity and seismic reflectivity: Case study at the German Continental Deep Drilling Site (KTB), Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 30, No. 17, 1893.

Saar, M.O. and M. Manga, Seismicity induced by seasonal groundwater recharge at Mt. Hood, Oregon, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., Vol. 214, 605-618, 2003. Excerpts from their poster: Some seismicity at Mount Hood, Oregon, appears to be triggered by groundwater recharge in Spring due to snow melt. The time lag between groundwater recharge and seismicity is about 150 days, implying a permeability of about 10-12 m2. The state of stress in the crust appears to be near critical for failure so that pore pressure changes of about 0.1 MPa at the surface can trigger earthquakes.

Thejll, Peter, A selection of papers with some relevance to the investigation of the Sun-Climate link: Papers on Data, Methods and Commentary.


References to water content of the deep crust

Petrologic case for a dry lower crust, by B.W.D. Yardley and J.W. Valley

Comment on "Petrologic case for a dry lower crust", by Philip E. Wannamaker

Mutual relationship between microseismicity and seismic reflectivity: Case study at the German Continental Deep Drilling Site (KTB), Rothert, E., Shapiro, S.A., Buske, S., and Bohnhoff, M., 2003, , Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 30, No. 17, 1893.


Bibliography on Hydroseismicity

Bollinger, G.A. and Costain, J.K., 1988, Long-term cyclicities in earthquake energy release and major river flow volumes in Virginia and Missouri seismic zones, Seismological Research Letters, V. 59, p. 279-283.

Carpenter, P.J. and Ervin, C.P., 1991. Rapid response vs. pore-pressure diffusion induced by river loading/unloading cycles as focal mechanism models for earthquakes near New Madrid, Missouri. Seismological Society of America, Eastern Section, p. 75.

Costain, J.K., and G. A. Bollinger, A hydrologic model for intraplate seismicity in the southeastern United States, paper given at Annual Meeting of Geol. Soc. Amer. in Orlando, FL, October 30, 1985, Abstract published Geol. Soc. Amer. Abstracts with Programs, v. 17, No. 7, September 1985.

Costain, J.K., G. A. Bollinger, and J. A. Speer, 1986, Hydroseismicity: A hypothesis for intraplate seismicity near passive rifted margins, invited talk at the Annual Meeting of the Seismological Society of America, Charleston, S.C., April 23, 1986. Abstract published in Earthquake Notes, Jan.-Mar., 1986, v. 57, No. 1, p. 13.

Costain, J.K., Bollinger, G.A., and Speer, J.A., 1987, Hydroseismicity: A hypothesis for the role of water in the generation of intraplate seismicity, Seismological Research Letters, v. 58, 41-64.

Costain, J.K., Bollinger, G.A., and Speer, J.A., 1987, Hydroseismicity: A hypothesis for the role of water in the generation of intraplate seismicity, Geology, v. 15, 618-621.

Costain, J.K., Bollinger, G.A., and Speer, J.A., 1988, REPLY to COMMENT from J.J. Major and R.M. Iverson on Hydroseismicity - A hypothesis for the role of water in the generation of intraplate seismicity, Geology, p. 563-564.

Costain, J.K., and Bollinger, G.A., 1988, Common long-term periodicities for streamflow and seismicity: Implications for deep fracture permeability in crystalline rocks (Abstract), Symposium Proceedings of International Conference on Fluid Flow in Fractured Rocks, Hydrogeology Program, Department of Geology, Georgia State University, May 15-18, 1988, p. 606, 613 pp.

Costain, J.K., Hopkins, D., and Bollinger, G.A., 1990, Fractal dimension of intraplate seismicity: Another streamflow connection?, Seismological Research Letters, v. 61, p. 148.

Costain, J.K., and Bollinger, G.A., 1991, Correlations between streamflow and intraplate seismicity in the central Virginia, U.S.A., seismic zone: evidence for possible climatic controls, Tectonophysics, v. 186, pp. 193-214.

Costain, J.K. and Bollinger, G.A., 1991, The role of water in the generation of intraplate seismicity: Hydroseismicity - Review and update, Geological Society of America Abstracts With Programs, v. 23, p. 18.

Costain, J.K. and Bollinger, G.A., 1993, Hydroseismicity: A hypothesis for a climate-intraplate seismicity connection. Paper given at Baltimore Spring Meeting of the American Geophysical Union, Special Symposium entitled Climate and Tectonics. Transactions, American Geophysical Union, v. 74, No. 16, p. 312. Invited paper.

Costain, J.K. and Bollinger, G.A., 1996, Climatic changes, streamflow, and long-term forecasting of intraplate seismicity, Journal of Geodynamics, v. 22, No. 1/2, September/October, pp. 97-117.

Domoracki, W.J., Stephenson, D.E., Çoruh, C., and Costain, J.K., 1999, Seismotectonic structures along the Savannah River Corridor, South Carolina, U.S.A., Journal of Geodynamics, v. 27, pp. 97-118.

Ervin, C. Patrick and El-Hussain, Issa , 1988, Hydroseismicity: A Viable Trigger Mechanism in the New Madrid Seismic Zone?, Seismological Research Letters, v. 59, 285 - 288.

M. -J. Jiménez and M. García-Fernández, 2000, Occurrence of shallow earthquakes following periods of intense rainfall in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, Volume 103, Issues 1-4, 20 December 2000, Pages 463-468.

Muço, Betim, 1995, The seasonality of Albanian earthquakes and crosscorrelation with rainfall, Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, v.88, pp. 285-291.

Muço, Betim, 1999, Statistical investigation on possible seasonality of seismic activity and rainfall-induced earthquakes in Balkan area, Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, v. 114, pp. 119-127.

Rodkin, M.V., 1992, Hydroseismicity -- New Evidence, Journal of Geodynamics, v. 15, pp. 247-260.

Saar, M.O. and M. Manga, 2003, Seismicity induced by seasonal groundwater recharge at Mt. Hood, Oregon, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., Vol. 214, 605-618.

Saar, M. O. and Manga, M., 2004, Depth dependence of permeability in the Oregon Cascades inferred from hydrogeologic, thermal, seismic, and magmatic modeling constraints, Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 109, BO4204.

Tsoflias, G., Bollinger, G.A., and Costain, J.K., 1995, Common cyclicities in the seismicity and water level fluctuations at the Charlevoix seismic zone on the St. Lawrence River, Quebec, Canada, v. 19, No. 2, pp. 117-139, Journal of Geodynamics.

Wolf, L.W., 1997, Periodic seismicity near Mt. Ogden on the Alaska-British Columbia Border: A Case for hydrologically triggered earthquakes?, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, v. 87, No. 6, pp. 1473-1483.

Wolf, L.W., Ming-Kuo Lee, Sharon Browning, and Martitia P. Tuttle, 2005, Numerical Analysis of Overpressure Development in the New Madrid Seismic Zone, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 95, No. 1, pp. 135–144.


Regional Geophysics Laboratory, Department of Geological Sciences,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University /Comments to: Costain@vt.edu

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